Psychological Analysis of Occupational Conditions in Extreme Environments and the Structure of Non-Standard Situations

Oksana KHURTENKO, Kseniia BEREZIAK, Roman KHAVULA, Oksana VDOVICHENKO, Nataliia ONISHCHENKO, Svitlana LIEBIEDIEVA

Abstract


Professional coaching career is associated with a wide range of issues and problems which need to be solved and are directly or indirectly determined by creative activity. Therefore, an appropriate training process of students, in particular prospective coaches, is an essential scientific and practical problem. The article presents a thorough psychological analysis of the structure of decision-making in extreme situations and identifies different types of non-standard situations in a coaching job. Also, it clarifies such concepts as “situation”, “non-standard situation” and “extreme situation” in the activity of the individual. It describes different types of non-standard situations which can be manifested in professional coaching and their impact on the human psyche. It analyzes extreme conditions in the activities of athletes and coaches and the role of various mental functions and personality traits in problem-solving. Importantly, the article emphasizes the role of the coach’s reflection and self-regulation in solving non-standard tasks under non-standard conditions. It indicates that two theoretical views on the nature of the human psyche and thinking correspond to two approaches to studying this particular problem. According to the first one, that is an adaptive approach, creative thinking as a form of behaviour is the result of learning, and only some individuals have creative ability. To teach creativity, however, one needs to include the elements of creative behaviour (problem-solving) and heuristics in the educational material. Another approach assumes that thinking is a productive process emerging as a result of a certain problematic situation. Prerequisites for the creative process are cognitive abilities and research activities of the individual.

Keywords


coaching job; creative activity; human psyche; adaptive approach; creative thinking; productive process; cognitive abilities;

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